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|past perfect tense||would + have + past participle
could + have + past participle
|if-clause: past perfect|
result clause: modal +have +past participle
If it had rained yesterday,
(It did not rain yesterday.)
If I hadn't known his address,
|I would have needed an umbrella.
(I did not need an umbrella.)
I couldn't have sent an invitation.
|<-Past Untrue Conditionals are used to talk about situations in the past that were not true.
They are used when you want to fantasize about something, or speculate on a situation that didn't happen.
If Jason hadn't been here,
(He was here.)
If I had been you,
|he couldn't have helped us.
(He helped us.)
I would have called him.
|In Past Untrue Conditionals, the "to be" verb is always "had been" in the if-clause, for all subjects: I, you, he, she, it, we, and they.|
If I had had $500,
|I could have bought some new clothes, or I could have taken a short trip.||When "could" is used in the result clause, it expresses a possibility.|
If Cindy had owned a car,
|she would have driven to school.||When "would have ___" is used in the result clause, it expresses a certainty. For sure you would have done that.|
Greg: B) "If I had bought a car, I would have bought a Porsche."
(how the word looks)
(how the word works)
|A) bought||past tense verb||expresses
|In sentence (A), "bought" looks like a past tense verb, and it works like a past tense verb. Marsha now has a car because she bought one.|
|B) had bought||past perfect||expresses
a past untrue
|In sentence (B), "had bought" looks like past perfect, BUT it is expressing a past situation that is not real. Greg did not buy a car. He is talking about his fantasy car.|
it's Your Turn - Choose one of the exercises below:
If-Then Clauses 5 - practice the if-clause
If-Then Clauses 6 - practice the result-clause
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