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Present Unreal (Untrue) Conditionals

past tense verb
would + present verb
could + present verb
if-clause uses simple past
result clause uses modal + present
If it rained today,
(It's not raining today)

If I didn't have his address,
(I have his address.)

I would need an umbrella.
(I do not need an umbrella.)

I couldn't send an invitation.
(I can send an invitation.)

<-Present Untrue Conditionals are used to talk about situations that are not true.

They are used when you want to fantasize about something, or speculate on a situation.

If Jason weren't here,
(He is here.)

If I were you,
(I am not you.)

he couldn't help us.
(He can help us.)

I would call him.
(I will not call him.)

In Present Untrue Conditionals, the "to be" verb is always "were" in the if-clause, for all subjects: I, you, he, she, it, we, and they.
If I had $500,
I could buy some new clothes, or I could take a short trip. When "could" is used in the result clause,
it expresses a possibility. 
If Cindy had a car,
she would drive to school. When "would" is used in the result clause,
it expresses a plan, or a probability. 
Marsha:   A) "I bought a car last week."
Greg:       B) "If I bought a car, I would buy a Porsche."

(how the word looks)
(how the word works)
A) boughtpast tense verbexpresses
past tense
In sentence (A), "bought" looks like a past tense verb, and it works like a past tense verb. Marsha now has a car because she bought one.
B) boughtpast tense verbexpresses
an untrue
In sentence (B), "bought" looks like a past tense verb, BUT it is expressing a situation that is not real. Greg did not buy a car. He is talking about his fantasy car!
Now it's Your Turn - Choose one of the exercises below:
If-Then Clauses 3 - practice the if-clause
If-Then Clauses 4 - practice the result-clause

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